Home | Index | Blog | No Autistics Allowed: Autism Society Canada Speaks For Itself


Canada in the Era of Autism Advocacy

A brief to the

Senate Standing Committee 
on Social Affairs, Science, and Technology

Michelle Dawson
Pervasive Developmental Disorders Specialized Clinic
Hôpital Rivières-des-Prairies
University of Montréal
No Autistics Allowed, Canada

Submitted on June 21, 2005

I’m a diagnosed autistic and a researcher affiliated with Laurent Mottron, MD/PhD’s autism research group here in Montreal. Dr Mottron is a University of Montreal Professor of Psychiatry, a CIHR-funded researcher, and the director of a busy autism clinic. I also work with the highly respected American experimental psychologist Morton Ann Gernsbacher, PhD, who recently was voted President Elect of the American Psychological Society. I’m interested in many areas in autism, including cognition, ethics, epidemiology, human rights, behaviour interventions, self-injury, and self-care. 

I run an atypical organization called No Autistics Allowed, to which many autistics and non-autistics contribute.

In addition, I’ve done a lot of legal work, including successfully intervening in Auton at the Supreme Court of Canada, where I was the only intervener who opposed the unscientific and unethical positions taken by both sides, as well as the only intervener mentioned in the Court’s decision. More recently, I became the first person to have an autism-related complaint referred to the Canadian Human Rights Tribunal for a hearing. 

At the same time, I set a different kind of precedent by losing three cases at the Quebec Human Rights Commission. Here it was ruled three times that autistic people are in fact a plague, and that describing us this way is not only not harmful to us, but is truly beneficial, and a sign that non-autistics with good intentions are helping us. Indeed, autistics should be grateful to have such dedicated advocates raising public awareness of our plague-like nature on our behalf. 

The legal situation of autistics in Canada is unique. For no other group have the rights guaranteed for all other Canadians been so thoroughly obliterated. This situation is the direct consequence of the ongoing era of autism advocacy. Finding a jurisdiction which is still able to consider us as human beings with human rights verges on the impossible. You have rights imbuing you with worth and dignity and protecting you from being demeaned and coerced, but autistic Canadians do not. Those who call themselves autism advocates, some of whom this Committee has heard from, have successfully argued that for autistics, there should only be one right, the right to what these advocates advertise as "effective" autism treatment. In the course of arguing for this one right, autism advocacy groups, such as FEAT groups and autism societies, have argued that autistics inherently have no possibility of dignity, integrity, health, liberty, worth, learning, security, etc, or even of life itself. In short, we are inherently too defective to have Charter rights. 

For example, FEAT Ontario argued at the Supreme Court of Canada that autistics are less than half living—and they have insisted that autistics belong not in families or in society, but in institutions. Autistics have been portrayed by autism advocates in the most dire and horrific terms. We destroy ourselves, our families, and the economy, and there are promises that we will shortly ruin the entire country so long as we are not expensively fixed. And our continued existence, as ourselves, as autistics, is held to be an affront to the whole idea of Canada.

At the same time, autism advocates claim that this impending national catastrophe can be averted, if there is unlimited funding for ABA(Applied Behavior Analysis)-based intensive interventions, Lovaas-type or otherwise, for all autistics of all ages. It should not surprise you that the premise of these comprehensive interventions, designed to occupy most of the waking hours of an autistic, is that autistics inherently lack humanity and personhood. As human beings, we are write-offs. Autistic abilities and traits are assumed to be non-existent, or destructive, useless and wrong. There is everything to gain, and nothing to lose, if our lives are dedicated to striving every minute to be normal, that is non-autistic. The goal of this kind of intervention, Ivar Lovaas has repeatedly written, is to build a person where none exists.

The nature of the treatment itself, along with the way it has been demanded by autism advocates in the healthcare system and elsewhere, has resulted in autistics having a less-than-human status in Canada. Governments and opposition parties, federal and provincial, have utterly failed in their duty to recognize autistics as human beings with rights, interests, and worth. To the contrary, politicians of all stripes have expediently heaped creative insults on their autistic constituents, while the current federal government boasts about opulent funding for preventing our existence altogether. Provincial human rights commissions have similarly failed to accord autistics any worth whatsoever. Ontario’s human rights commission told me that autism is cancer—another prominent idea promoted by autism advocates—and that my only right as an autistic is to get rid of my autism. 

When I expressed dismay that the Ontario Ombudsman had, among many other insults to disabled people, persistently associated violence with disability, I was informed by this Ombudsman’s office that autistic people are indeed violent. I had previously thought that associating violence with disability was no different from or more acceptable than associating violence with race—but the word is out about autism, and I was put firmly in my place.

A few words about these hearings.

Senator Kirby has, in these hearings, misrepresented and mocked the polite request by an autistic person that autism be portrayed accurately in these hearings. What an absurd request, he is on the record as saying. How strange, how nearly offensive it is for a person who is autistic to point out that misrepresenting, sensationalizing, and demonizing autistics is harmful to us. This is on the heels of this entire Committee’s decision to highlight and distribute, among other misleading and harmful views of autism, a statement by an Autism Society Canada board member that autism is worse than cancer, because autism isn’t fatal. As with my cases presented to the Quebec Human Rights Commission, in which I objected to the existence of autistics being called a plague, I was informed that portraying autism as more dreadful than cancer was helpful to autistics, if I would only understand. This Committee seems sure that promoting fear, dread, and hatred of autism and autistic people will help us. 

I should not have to explain why we are not helped by hate speech and other gross violations and denials of our rights. 

Because autism advocates have had nothing good to say about autistics in these hearings, I’m providing a short list of some autistic characteristics found in the scientific literature. Most of these findings are published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals; one is in press; many of them have been replicated; a few of them were presented at recent major research conferences and have not yet been published:

Empirically documented autistic strengths include: enhanced visual search abilities; enhanced visual discrimination; superior ability in disembedding figures; enhanced auditory pitch memory, pitch labeling and pitch disembedding; superior speed of processing; superior performance in detecting and responding to visual social and non-social cues; faster sentence comprehension; superior performance in detecting changes in pitch; enhanced memory of semantic and visual stimuli with less susceptibility to false memories; superior pitch discrimination and categorization; superior accuracy in graphic cued recall; superior phonological processing; superiority in maintaining shape constancy; faster grammatical computation; superior numerical estimation; enhanced perception of static first-order visual stimuli; superior recognition of faces with a one-feature prime; and superior individual feature processing.

In this list, which isn’t comprehensive, I haven’t included superior abilities in specific intelligence tests. Neither have I added in the great susceptibility of autistics to develop savant abilities, and our extraordinary ability to learn well in ways non-autistics do not learn well. These are also in the science. In the case of learning, it is Dr Lovaas who so routinely observed autistic learning, which he admits happens in the absence of either teaching or reinforcement, that he had to invent a name for this phenomenon. However, he continued to deny this was real learning, because it is not how normal people learn. And he deployed the full undeniable power of ABA to extinguish this learning, including extinguishing savant abilities or genius behaviours, which he considered abnormal and unwanted.

Autistics should not have to justify our existence by providing a list of strengths which may then result, if we are lucky, in our being authorized to live. But we are most reliably defined by our strengths, our innate autistic strengths, which exist in all autistics regardless of how our level of functioning is judged. As with all innate characteristics, like left-handedness and homosexuality, removing autistic strengths is very hard work. This is one reason ABA programs are so expensive and arduous. Our tenacious and intractable strengths get in the way of any attempt to make us resemble normal people.

Unless I have time to make recommendations, I’ll finish with a short exploration of the recent Wynberg decision. In Wynberg, parents took on the Ontario government over funding for ABA for school-aged autistic children.

As a result of this decision—which, in the words of Mary Eberts, is "the law of the land"—children who are in ABA programs have human dignity; they have Charter rights. However, this decision also states that autistics who are not fully engaged striving to be normal via ABA programs do not have dignity. Autistics are ruled to be unable to learn in any other way, or towards any other goal, or to have any other possibilities. Either we strive to be normal through ABA, or we lack human dignity and worth, are not welcome to participate in society, and are judged not to have what it takes for "membership in the human community."

I have exactly the characteristics now enshrined in "the law of the land" as useless and maladaptive and wrong; and I lack many of the skills now legally defined as qualifications for human dignity and "membership in the human community."

On one hand, you should not be surprised that autism advocates roundly applauded this decision, which has the effect of requiring disadvantaged groups to qualify for Charter rights, and indeed for humanity itself, by sufficiently becoming normal—which in this case means non-autistic. On the other hand, you should be very surprised that those same autism advocates who insist that autism is cancer, and that ABA is medically necessary treatment that must be provided in the healthcare system, declared Wynberg a wonderful victory. But Wynberg, like the similarly celebrated Bettencourt decision, entirely denies that autism is a healthcare issue and that ABA is a medical treatment. Indeed, all the experts for both sides in Wynberg—and as is typical in these supposedly adversarial procedures, both sides provided only evidence supporting ABA—agreed that ABA is not medical in nature, and is not at all a medical treatment. The successful lawyers for the parents in the earlier Bettencourt case stated that the key to this victory was their position that autism is not a health issue at all.

Decisions made about the nature and needs of autistics in Canada are inevitably made according to the nature and needs of people who are not autistic. There is no consideration of who autistics might be and what we might need. Either we are horribly sick or we aren’t, depending on what non-autistics need. Autism advocates claiming to represent us characterize us as devastating burdens, and cannot contemplate that we need anything except to become non-autistic. They have no concept of autistics succeeding as autistic people. They have shown no interest in actually helping autistics, in obtaining for us the respect, acceptance and assistance we need in order to succeed as autistics.

Wynberg also documented that children in ABA programs learn that autism is a very bad thing. They learn that it is important not only that they themselves get rid of every bit of their autism, but that every bit of autism in all people must be gotten rid of. These children are lavishly reinforced for all incremental progress towards the ideal of being normal, and are discouraged, ignored, and shunned for in any way being autistic. Having learned intensively, through most of their waking hours for many years, that being autistic is wrong, many of these children—as reported by autism advocates and in cases like Bettencourt—"disintegrate", become distressed and out of control, and cannot function at all when there is any reduction of the reinforcement they are dependent on.

While I don’t have time to challenge all the unscientific autism statistics which have been rampant in these hearings, any objective examination of the extravagant claims made here by autism advocates will demolish any notion that these advocates are at all concerned with science, research, ethics, or evidence. Critical thinking is required. For example, anyone proposing that there is an explosion or epidemic or otherwise staggering increase in the prevalence of autism is doing so without a scientific leg to stand on. You should notice that every attempt is being made by autism advocates to make everyone terrified of autism and autistic people, and you should notice that there is no factual or ethical foundation for this relentless campaign of fear and intolerance. You should notice that autism advocates, with the full co-operation of people like yourselves, are working very hard to ensure that autistics will never receive the help we very much need in order to succeed as autistic people. Unless you reconsider, you are standing alongside autism advocates in ensuring that Canadians will never find out what autistics can achieve in a society where it is okay to be autistic.

The clear purpose of s. 15 of the Charter is to value human dignity in a free society where difference is respected and equality is valued.

[O]ne’s right to be protected from discrimination means the right to be different, to be accepted as different, and to have equality of treatment that embraces and honours that difference.

Hall(Litigation guardian of) v. Powers 59 O.R. (3d) 423 [2002] O.J. No. 1803, at para. 19 and 22


For this Committee:

1. That this Committee, and the Senate as a whole, apologize to autistic Canadians, for using your power and resources to promote and distribute false and pejorative information about autistics which is likely to be damaging and dangerous to us.

2. Further, that this Committee include this apology in your final report arising from these hearings, and that this final report should exclude all false, pejorative, damaging, and dangerous portrayals of autism and of autistic people.

3. That the above-mentioned final report make it clear that autism is not a mental illness; that autism is receiving a great deal of attention due to the efforts of autism advocates; and that this attention, because it arises from factually false and ethically indefensible portrayals of autistic people, has harmed and damaged us.

4. That the same report acknowledge that autistics, like non-autistics, can suffer from mental illnesses; but that autistics, due to living in a society which demeans and disrespects us and accords us no rights, have specific problems with situational depression, self-hate, lack of any sense of worth, and suicidal ideation or suicide. This is not in any way due to being autistic, but due to constant messages from our society and its leaders that we are worthless, wrong, and an appalling burden on everyone. Because these messages are not merely rhetoric, but policy which is implemented by governments and government-funded organizations, autistics also have basic survival problems. If and when these problems are resolved such that we can proceed safely in society and obtain assistance and defend our rights as necessary, our other apparent problems are likely to diminish. Our current powerlessness to have any influence on any of the decisions, great and small, made about ourselves as autistics must also be mentioned as a factor impinging on our mental and physical health.

For autistics in Canada:

1. That autistics receive the assistance, acceptance, and respect we require in order to succeed as autistics in Canadian society.

2. That guidelines be put in place re informing a parent of a diagnosis of autism, such that it is held to be unethical to present this news as devastating, or as a tragedy or disappointment, or to assert that the diagnosed child is in any way doomed or will need to be institutionalized.

3. That an accurate, unbiased, comprehensive resource for autism information be established, in response to autism organizations being dominated by autism advocates promoting one specific view of autism and autism treatment; such a source would precisely debunk false notions, for example, that autistics are unable to learn or to communicate except via ABA-based programs, or that 90% of autistics who do not get ABA are institutionalized.. 

4. That all areas of science, including cognitive work concerning the nature of autistic differences, rather than only behaviour science, or science regarding autism interventions or treatments, be taken into account when public policy decisions are made about autism; and that a wide variety of autistics, including those not expediently handpicked for this purpose by organizations consisting overwhelmingly of non-autistics, be fully and constantly consulted and advised about all such decisions.

5. That free legal services be available to autonomous autistic individuals, in order to enable us to establish then defend our rights, to maintain our autonomy, to intervene in any and all cases in which decisions are made about autism; and to challenge those who freely incite fear, dread, and hatred of autistic people; this would include challenges to governments and political parties, human rights commissions, and other government and government-funded organizations. 

6. That the importance of autism-specific and instantly available crisis intervention be recognized, including legal intervention if necessary, so that sporadic difficulties, including basic survival problems, inevitably experienced by all autistics interacting with a largely hostile society, do not have permanent negative consequences for us, such as loss of our freedom and forced medication; further, that this kind of intervention take priority in funding over many other popular but unproven programs, including social skills training. 

7. That no government funding or recognition be given to autism organizations, Canadian or otherwise, which for whatever reason have no meaningful and significant participation of autistics in all decision-making processes; and that Canadian governments and governmental organizations will not communicate or cooperate with such organizations, including funding bodies, for any reason.

8. That parliament in a non-partisan way must uphold the value and humanity of autistic Canadians; and the value and contributions of our inherent differences to society; and our essential role in all decisions made about our treatment, our worth, our nature, and our rights in Canada.


Auton (2002-2004), File Number 29508. In the Supreme Court of Canada (On appeal from the British Columbia Court of Appeal) between the Attorney General of British Columbia and the Medical Services Commission of British Columbia, Applicants (Appellants/Respondents on Cross-Appeal) and Connor Auton et al, Respondents (Respondents/Apellants on Cross-Appeal): applications for leave to appeal and cross-appeal, responses, and replies; applications for leave to intervene; factums of the parties and interveners; index of the Appellant’s Record.

Auton (Guardian ad litem of) v. British Columbia (Attorney General), 2004 SCC 78.

Baird G., Charman, T., Baron-Cohen, S., Cox, A., Swettenham, J., Wheelwright, S., Drew, A. (2000). A screening instrument for autism at 18 months of age: a 6-year follow-up study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 694-702.

Barbaresi, W.J., Katusic S.K., Colligan, R.C., Weaver. A.L., and Jacobsen SJ. (2005). The incidence of autism in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1976-1997: results from a population-based study. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 159, 37-44.

Bertone, A., Mottron, L., Jelenic, P., Faubert, J. (2005). Enhanced and diminished visuo-spatial information processing in autism depends on stimulus complexity. Brain. In press.

Bettencourt v. Ontario, 2005 CanLII 462 (ON S.C.)

Beversdorf, D.Q., Smith, B.W., Crucian, G.P., Anderson, J.M., Keillor, J.M., Barrett. A.M., Hughes, J.D., Felopulos, G.J., Bauman, M.L., Nadeau, S.E., and Heilman, K.M. (2000). Increased discrimination of "false memories" in autism spectrum disorder. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, 8734-8737.

Bonnel, A., Mottron, L., Peretz, I., Trudel, M., Gallun, E., and Bonnel, A.M. (2003). Enhanced pitch sensitivity in individuals with autism: a signal detection analysis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 226-235.

Boyd, R.D. (1998). Sex as a possible source of group inequivalence in Lovaas (1987). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 211-214. 

Caron, M-J., Mottron, L., Rainville, C., and Chouinard, S. (2004). Do high functioning persons with autism present superior spatial abilities? Neuropsychologia, 42, 467-481.

Chakrabarti, S., and Fombonne, E. (2001). Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 3093-9.

Chakrabarti, S., and Fombonne, E. (2005). Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children: Confirmation of high prevalence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1133-41.

Chance, P. (1974). "After you hit a child, you can't just get up and leave him; you are hooked to that kid": A conversation with O. Ivar Lovaas about self-mutilating children and why their parents make it worse. Psychology Today, 7, 76-84. 

Chawarska, K., Klin, A., and Volkmar, F. (2003). Automatic attention cueing through eye movement in 2-year-old children with autism. Child Development, 74, 1108-1122. 

Choutka, C.M., Doloughty, P.T. and Zirkel, P.A. (2004). The "discrete trials" of applied behavior analysis for children with autism: Outcome-related factors in the case law. Journal of Special Education 38, 95-104. 

Dawson, M. (2005). Autism in society, law, and science. CD-rom, CECOM ed, Montréal. 

Dawson, M. (2004). The misbehaviour of behaviourists. http://www.sentex.net/~nexus23/naa_aba.html

Dawson, M. (2005). An autistic victory. http://www.sentex.net/~nexus23/naa_vic.html

Dawson, M. , Mottron, L., Jelenic, P., and Soulières, I. (2005, May). Superior performance of autistics on RPM and PPVT relative to Wechsler scales provides evidence for the nature of autistic intelligence. Poster presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research. Boston, MA.

Eaves, L.C., and Ho, H.H. (2004). The very early identification of autism: outcome to age 4 1/2-5. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 367-378.

Epstein, L.J., Taubman, M.T., and Lovaas, O.I. (1985). Changes in self-stimulatory behaviors with treatment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 281-294.

Fecteau, S., Mottron, L., Berthiaume, C., and Burack, J.A. (2003). Developmental changes of autistic symptoms. Autism, 7, 255-68. 

Fombonne, E. (2001). Is there an epidemic of autism? Pediatrics, 107, 411-2.

Fombonne, E. (2003). The Prevalence of Autism. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 289, 87-89. 

Foxton, J.M., Stewert, M.E., Barnard, L., Rodgers, J., Young, A.H., O’Brian, G., and Griffiths, T.D. (2003). Absence of auditory ‘global interference’ in autism. Brain,126, 2703-2709.

Freeman, S.K. (2003). Science for sale in the autism wars: Medically necessary autism treatment, the court battle for health insurance and why health technology academics are enemy number one. Lynden, WA: SKF Books. 

Gernsbacher, M.A. (2002, August). Tackling the myths of autism: Insights from experimental psychology. Presidential address to the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association. Chicago, IL.

Gernsbacher, M. A. (2003). Is one style of autism early intervention "scientifically proven?" Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders, 7, 19-25. 

Gernsbacher, M.A., Dawson, M., and Goldsmith, H.H. (2005). Three reasons not to believe in an autism epidemic. Current Directions in Psychological Science. In press.

Green, G. (1999). Science and ethics in early intervention for autism. In P.M. Ghezzi, W.L. Williams, and J.E. Carr (Eds.), Autism, Behavior Analytic Perspectives. Reno, NV: Context Press. 

Hall(Litigation guardian of) v. Powers 59 O.R. (3d) 423 [2002] O.J. No. 1803

Happé, F.G. (1999). Autism: Cognitive deficit or cognitive style? Trends in Cognitive Science, 3, 216-222.

Heaton, P. (2003). Pitch memory, labeling and disembedding in autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 543-51.

Heaton, P. and Wallace, G.L. (2004). Annotation: The savant syndrome.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 899-911. 

Hillier, A., Campbell, H.L., Phillips, N., Keillor, J., Hause, T., Renner, K., Smith, R., and Beversdorf, D.Q. (2005). Autism and susceptibility to the visual false memory effect. Poster presented at the International Neuropsychological Society Annual Meeting. St. Louis, MO.

Honda, H., Shimizu, Y., Misumi, K., Niimi, M., and Ohashi, Y. (1996). Cumulative incidence and prevalence of childhood autism in Japan. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 671-2 

Howlin, P. (2003). Outcome in high-functioning adults with autism with and without early language delays: implications for the differentiation between autism and Asperger syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 3-13. 

Jacobson, J.W., Mulick, J.A., and Green, G. (1998). Cost-benefit estimates for early intensive behavioral intervention for young children with autism--general model and single state case. Behavioral Interventions, 13, 201-226. 

Jolliffe, T., and Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). Are people with autism and Asperger syndrome faster than normal on the Embedded Figures Test? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38, 527-534.

Just, M.A., Cherkassky, V.L., Keller, T.A., and Minshew N.J. (2004). Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: Evidence of underconnectivity. Brain, 127, 1811-1821.

Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250. 

Kanner, L. (1971). Follow-up study of eleven autistic children originally reported in 1943. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 119-145. 

Kanner, L., Rodriguez, A., and Ashenden, B. (1972) How far can autistic children go in matters of social adaptation? Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 9-33. 

Kielinen, M., Linna S.L., and Moilanen, I. (2000). Autism in Northern Finland. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 162-7. 

Lahaie, A., Mottron, L., Arguin, M., Berthiaume, C., Jemel, B., and Saumier, D. (2005). Face perception in high-functioning autistic adults: evidence for superior processing of face parts, not for a configural face processing deficit. Neuropsyhology. In press.

Lovaas, O.I. (1967). A behavior therapy approach to the treatment of childhood schizophrenia. Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology, 1, 108-159. 

Lovaas, O.I. (1979). Contrasting illness and behavioral models for the treatment of autistic children: A historical perspective. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 9, 315-323. 

Lovaas, O. I. (1981). Teaching Developmentally Disabled Children: The Me Book. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Lovaas, O.I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9. 

Lovaas, O.I. (1989). Concerns about misinterpretation and placement of blame. American Psychologist, 44, 1243-1244. 

Lovaas, O.I. (1993). The development of a treatment-research project for developmentally disabled and autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 617-30. 

Lovaas, O.I . (2002) Teaching Individuals with Developmental Delays: Basic Intervention Techniques. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Lovaas, O. I., Schaeffer, B., and Simmons, J. Q. (1965). Building social behavior in autistic children by use of electric shock. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, 99-109 

Lovaas, O.I., Schreibman, L., and Koegel, R.L. (1974). A behavior modification approach to the treatment of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 4, 111-129. 

Lovaas, O.I. and Newsom, C.D. (1976). Behavior modification with psychotic children. In H. Leiteberg (ed.), Handbook of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy. Englewoood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 

Lovaas, I., Newsom, C., and Hickman, C. (1987). Self-stimulatory behavior and perceptual reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 45-68. 

Lovaas, O.I., and Smith, T. (1989). A comprehensive behavior theory of autistic children: Paradigm for research and treatment. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 20, 17-29. 

Maurice, C. (1993). Let me hear your voice: A family's triumph over autism. New York: Knopf. 

McEachin, J.J., Smith, T., and Lovaas, O.I. (1993). Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 97, 359-72. 

Medical Research Council. (London, December 2001). MRC Review of Autism Research. Epidemiology and Causes. www.mrc.ac.uk

Mottron, L., and Belleville, S. (1993). A study of perceptual analysis in a high-level autistic subject with exceptional graphic abilities. Brain and Cognition, 23, 279-309.

Mottron, L., Belleville, S., Stip, E., and Morasse, K. (1998). Atypical memory performances in an autistic savant. Memory, 6, 593-607.

Mottron, L., Belleville, S., and Ménard, E. (1999). Local bias in autistic subjects as evidenced by graphic tasks: perceptual hierchization or working memory deficit. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 743-756.

Mottron, L., Burack, J.A., Stauder, J.E., and Robaey, P. (1999). Perceptual processing among high-functioning persons with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 203-211. 

Mottron, L., Peretz, I., and Ménard, E. (2000). Local and global processing of music in high-functioning persons with autism: beyond central coherence? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 1057-1065.

Mottron, L., Morasse, K., and Belleville, S. (2001). A study of memory functioning in individuals with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42, 253-260.

Mottron. L, and Burack, J. (2001). Enhanced perceptual functioning in the development of persons with autism. In: Burack, J.A., Charman, T., Yirmiya, N., and Zelazo P.R., editors, The development of autism: Perspectives from theory and research. Hillside, N. J., Erlbaum.

Mottron, L., Burack, J., Iarocci, G., Belleville, S., and Enns, J. (2003). Locally oriented perception with intact global processing among adolescents with high functioning autism: Evidence from multiple paradigms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 906-913.

Mottron, L. (2004a). IQ Matching in cognitive research with individuals with high-functioning autism: Current practices, instrument biases and recommendations. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 34, 19-27. 

Mottron, L. (2004b). L’autisme: une autre intelligence. Belgium: Mardaga. 

Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Berthiaume, C., and Soulières, I.  (2004, May). Peaks of ability reflect G factor in individuals with autism. Presentation at the International Meeting for Autism Research. Sacramento, CA. 

Mottron, L., Lemmens, K., Gagnon, L., and Seron, X. (2005). Non-algorithmic access to calendar information in a calendar calculator with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. In press.

Nordyke, N.S., Baer, D.M., Etzel, B.C., and LeBlanc, J.M. (1977). Implications of the stereotyping and modification of sex role. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10, 553-7. 

O'Riordan, M., & Plaisted, K. (2001). Enhanced discrimination in autism. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 961-979. 

Pellicano, E., Gibson, L., Maybery, M., Durkin K., and Badcock, D.R. (2005). Abnormal global processing along the dorsal visual pathway in autism: A possible mechanism for weak visuospatial coherence? Neuropsychologia, 43,1044-53.
Plaisted, K., O’Riordan, M, and Baron-Cohen, S. (1998). Enhanced discrimination of novel, highly similar stimuli by adults with autism during a perceptual learning task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 39, 765-775.

Plaisted, K., Sweetenham, J., and Reese, L. (1999). Children with autism show local precedence in a divided attention task and global precedence in a selective attention task. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 733-742.

Pukki, H. (2005). Autistic culture: Peer support, literature and political activity arising from the initiative of autistic adults. Birmingham: University of Birmingham.

Rekers, G.A., Bentler, P.M., Rosen, A.C., and Lovaas, O.I. (1977). Child gender disturbances: A clinical rationale for intervention. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 14, 2-11. 

Rekers, G.A., and Lovaas, O.I. (1974). Behavioral treatment of deviant sex-role behaviors in a male child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7, 173-90. 

Rekers, G.A., Lovaas, O.I., and Low, B. (1974). The behavioral treatment of a "transsexual" preadolescent boy. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2, 99-116. 

Ropar, D., and Mitchell, P. (2002). Shape constancy in autism: the role of prior knowledge and perspective cues. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 5, 647-653.

Rosen, A.C., Rekers, G.A., and Bentler, P.M. (1978). Ethical issues in the treatment of children. Journal of Social Issues, 34, 122-36. 

Rutter, M. (1970). Autistic children: infancy to adulthood. Seminars in Psychiatry, 2, 435-50.

Scheuffgen, K., Happe, F., Anderson, M., and Frith, U. (2000). High "intelligence," low "IQ"? Speed of processing and measured IQ in children with autism. Development and Psychopathology, 12, 83-90. 

Shah, A., and Frith, U. (1983). An islet of ability in autistic children: A research note.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 613-620.

Shah, A., and Frith, U. (1993). Why do autistic individuals show superior performance on the block design task? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34, 1351-1364.

Shea, V. (2004). A perspective on the research literature related to early intensive behavioral intervention (Lovaas) for young children with autism. Autism, 8, 349-67.

Sinclair, J. (2005). Autism Network International: The development of a community and its culture. http://web.syr.edu./~jisincla/History_of_ANI.html

Smith, T. (1988). Concerns about nonspecific factors in the treatment of developmental disabilities. American Psychologist, 43, 657-658. 

Smith, T. (1996). Are other treatments effective? In C. Maurice (Ed.), G. Green, and S. C. Luce (Co-Eds.), Behavioral intervention for young children with autism. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. 

Smith, T. (1999). Outcome of early intervention for children with autism. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 6, 33-49 

Smith, T., Klevstrand, M., and Lovaas, O.I. (1995). Behavioral treatment of Rett's disorder: ineffectiveness in three cases. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 100, 317-22. 

Smith, T., Eikeseth, S., Klevstrand, M., and Lovaas, O.I. (1997). Intensive behavioral treatment for preschoolers with severe mental retardation and pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal of Mental Retardation 103, 238-249. 

Smith, T., Groen, A.D., and Wynn, J.W. (2000). Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 105, 269-85. Erratum in American Journal of Mental Retardation, 105, 508. Erratum in American Journal of Mental Retardation, 106, 208. 

Smith, T, Lovaas, N.W., and Lovaas, O.I. (2002). Behaviors of children with high-functioning autism when paired with typically developing versus delayed peers: A preliminary study. Behavioral Interventions, 17, 129-143.

Strauss, M.S., Turner J., K, and Minshew, N.J. (2005, May). Numerical estimation: Do individuals with autism demonstrate superior abilities? Poster presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research. Boston, MA.

Szatmari, P., Bartolucci, G., Bremner, R., Bond, S., and Rich, S. (1989). A follow-up of high-functioning autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 213-225.

Toichi, M., Kamio, Y., Okada, T., Sakihama, M., Youngstrom, E.A., Findling, R.L., and Yamamoto, K. (2002). A lack of self-consciousness in autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1422-24.

Van Houten, R., Axelrod, S., Bailey, J.S., Favell, J.E., Foxx, R.M., Iwata, B.A., and Lovaas, O.I. (1988). The right to effective behavioral treatment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 21, 381-4. 

Volkmar, F.R., Lord, C., Bailey, A., Schultz, R.T., Klin, A. (2004). Autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 135-170.

Walenski, M., Mostofsky, S.H., Larsen, J.G., and Ullman, M.T. (2005, May). Fast grammatical computation in autism. Poster presented at the Cognitive Neuroscience Society Annual Conference. New York, NY.

Wynberg v. Ontario, 2005 CanLII 8749 (ON S.C.) 

© Michelle Dawson 2005 | Published June 22, 2005
Top | Comments | E-mail